The two species of cultivated rice in the world are: Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, the latter cultivated exclusively on the African continent. The species Oryza Sativa differs in three additional subspecies: Indica, Japonica and Javanica (less important). From a commercial point of view there are several classifications of rice, different depending of the distinguishing parameters taken into account.
COMMERCIAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE RICE
The classification of rice according to the Italian legislation is based on the indication of the Law 325 of 18 March 1958, pending the new law on the internal market in the approval process. The Rice is classified into 4 groups on the basis of the grain size of the rice worked, the length and the width ratio of the grain, its texture and its pearling.
Each year the Ministry of Agriculture issues a decree containing the names of varieties of paddy and the corresponding variety of rice, of course taking into account the variety of new registration.
The group are:
Under current legislation in the European Union (EU Regulation n.1308 / 2013) the parameters that are taken into account are exclusively the length of the rice worked and the relationship between length and width of the grain.
EU classification of the rice:
Other classification based on the amylose content in rice:
Commercialization of Rice
The rice is sold in the following states of processing:
Cargo Husked Brown rice: obtained from simple husking paddy rice (removal of the husk) through first state of processing.
White Rice: obtained starting from the husked brown rice and further processing for the removal of the entire pericarp, or all the external layers of the grain. Now it is inserted a further evaluation of rice based on “degree of white of the rice” with colorimeter Kett.
Quality of rice
There are several defects of the rice determinable by a visual analysis of the sample of rice.
The main defects are:
For each of the listed defects exist appropriate percentage of allowed tolerances.
In the commercial evaluation of paddy rice, in addition to the evaluation of defective grains listed above, it is certainly essential to the evaluation of the yield in processing ie: quantity of milled rice to whole grain that can be obtained from a sample of paddy. Important because it is one aspect that is taken into consideration for determining the selling price of paddy rice. The yield is determined from a sample of 100 grams of paddy rice, it is expressed as a percentage and varies depending on the varieties of paddy rice, the cultivation and storage conditions.