Common wheat and Durum wheat
The different characteristics between the two great families of wheat are due to the specifications of the kernel in milling and the destination use:
- The kernel of common wheat has a fracture surface powdery, white and opaque by milling and sifting process to produce flour.
- The kernel of durum wheat has a fracture surface vitreous, translucent and transparent, from the milling and sifting are obtained semolina
In Italy there are many cultivated varieties, certainly a heritage of quality and value, but the only deficiency are variety in particular with low and poor quality of gluten. This implies the need to import high quality varieties to complement our national product (in particular US and Canadian varieties) especially for common wheat.
The grain composition
The endosperm composition
The average starch content of the Durum wheat is higher than that of the Common wheat.
The quality must be understood in reference to the different applications of flour: bread, pasta, biscuits, cakes.
Important parameters for assessing the quality of the grain:
The quality and the technology abilities of wheat are evaluated by laboratory tests that provide indices of the quality of the product.
The most significant indices are:
The alveografica analysis in particular allows to derive two important indices:
- P / L ratio of tenacity and elasticity (optimal value between 0.4-0.6 over 0.6 we will have a hard bread, compact and of little mixing development, while under 0.4 a sticky dough and soft.)
- W index extensibility of the dough that allows the collocation of the wheat according to the products derived from them.
The references are largely similar to the Common wheat.
Among the principal qualitative characteristics:
- Milling quality (weight, percent of damaged kernels, ashes)
- Attitude to the pasta (P/L 180, W 150)